Ranitomeya opisthomelas was listed in 2004 by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN, 2006) as a vulnerable species because their distribution is less than 20,000 km2 and inhabited forest, north of the Central Mountain Range show a continuing decline in extent due to heavy deforestation (Galeano and Urbina, 2003; Gutierrez-C, 2005). Additionally, there is very little information on their ecology, demographics and habitat conservation status of this species (Galeano and Urbina, 2003; Gutierrez-C, 2005).
In 2007 he carried out work with R. opisthomelas to determine some demographics and natural history of the species in the forests of the Birds Nature Reserve located south of Antioquia cuckoo-east of the town of Anori.
80.9% of the individuals were adults and only 19.1% were juveniles, showing a bias in the population structure in the study site. The 5.62% of individuals were found carrying tadpoles, these were males.
The differences found in the relative density of R. opisthomelas between the two seasons in which they conducted this study indicate that the wet season is favoring certain conditions, be an optimum temperature, presence of fitotelmatas, etc.. that may influence the density of this species. It is recommended that other studies that assess other variables that may affect the abundance, density, fecundity and survival of this species.
It was confirmed that this species has parental care as observed in other members of this family. Every adult carries only a tadpole on its back. Further studies are needed to clarify whether R. ovoposita opisthomelas only one egg or more than one and if the tadpoles are transported fitotelmatas, like their counterparts to complete their development.